An echocardiogram uses sound waves to produce a video image of the heart. The ultrasound waves bounce off of your heart and produce moving images that can be viewed on a video screen as the heart is contracting and relaxing. Many times it is used just to confirm that there is no heart defect or abnormality.

The echocardiogram study consists of several parts, which may include:

M-mode Echocardiogram:

These are tracings that delineate the motion of the heart. Measurements of the heart walls and chambers can be obtained from these motion tracings.

Two-Dimensional Echocardiogram:

Real-time images of the heart as it is contracting and relaxing are recorded. It is very helpful in determining:

  • any enlargement of the heart
  • if the contractility of the heart is normal or decreased
  • if there are any structural abnormalities of the heart valves
  • if there is a hole in the upper or lower middle wall of the heart
  • any narrowing of the arteries or the blood vessels that connect to the heart
  • if there are is transposition of the great arteries or complex heart defects
  • mitral valve prolapse

Doppler Echocardiogram

This is the part of the echocardiogram that makes a whooshing noise as the blood flows through the heart valves, arteries, and heart chambers. This part of the ultrasound test determines the velocity of blood flow as it travels through the different parts of the heart. This could be a very useful test to determine any acceleration of blood flow as may be seen with an obstructed valve or narrowing in one of the arteries. It may also give an estimation of the pressures in the lungs and heart chambers. The Doppler study is useful in calculating pressure gradients across an obstruction or a hole in the heart.

Color-Flow Echocardiogram

This is the part of the Doppler echocardiogram where we can determine the direction of blood flow according to the color on the screen. Blood going away from the transducer looks blue, while blood coming towards the echocardiogram transducer looks red. In addition, there may be a mosaic of colors if there is turbulent flow as may be seen across a narrow blood vessel or heart valve. This is also helpful in detecting a leaky valve or a hole in the heart. This is a very sensitive instrument that may pick up a very mild degree of leakage in normal heart valves. This is what we call physiologic regurgitation (leakage). Virtually all normal human beings have physiologic regurgitation in one or more heart valves. This common finding is benign and does not need follow up. It does not imply that any abnormality is present.


Our Mission

Children's Heart Specialists, PSC is committed to provide comprehensive pediatric cardiac services to infants, children and young adults. We strive to insure the highest quality in non-invasive cardiovascular testing. Our medical staff is committed to being board certified in pediatric cardiology and adult congenital heart disease.

Our goal is to provide the highest quality of care with compassion and respect to our patients and their families.

Accredited in Echocardiography


We do not give any medical advice or recommendations about you or your child's health in this website. The medical information that appears on this website is to be used as a general guide about heart defects and symptoms. Medical advice is discussed at the time of your consultation with Dr. Villafañe.